Features off grunts and strong grunts produced by territorial men and you may grunts developed by lady of the corkwing wrasse
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Desk 2. For men, amount of songs analysed is offered because final amount and range of tunes analysed each private within the mounts. For men, number of nest sites equal what number of boys recorded, for ladies, it represents just how many nests of which i seen them. Male sound qualities had been averaged into private level before figuring the shown analysis. Indicate ± SD | Average is provided with towards the quantity of pulses for every single voice, period, heartrate and you can prominent regularity

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Figure step three. Several heart circulation musical created by the new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you can associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out-of a good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt regarding a territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt of a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram options: 50 dB vibrant range, Hamming windows (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (men and women grunt), 0.08 s window length (male deep grunt)

Profile 3. Multiple heartbeat audio developed by the new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you may associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt of good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt from a beneficial territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt out of a female corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: fifty dB dynamic assortment, Hamming windows (elevated sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (female and male grunt), 0.08 s window duration (men strong grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-pulse sounds

The selection of obviously assignable ticks lead to the study of 102 male presses out-of 30 clips off 19 somebody and you may 66 women clicks out of 20 clips on nests from 14 men. The selection of obviously assignable plops contributed to the analysis out of 73 men plops out-of twenty eight films off 18 video clips and you can 66 female plops regarding 21 films from the nests from fourteen men. Averaging male audio per personal male lead to a sample size of letter = 18 having presses, and you can n = 17 to possess plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty eight.4 = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).