Attributes out of grunts and you may deep grunts developed by territorial guys and grunts created by females of your corkwing wrasse
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Dining table dos. For males, quantity of audio analysed is provided with due to the fact final amount plus the directory of tunes analysed per private in the brackets. For males, number of nest internet sites equal exactly how many males filed, for women, it signifies the number of nests of which we seen him or her. Male sound features have been averaged to the individual height just before calculating the newest displayed investigation. Imply ± SD | Median is provided with toward level of pulses for every sound, years, heartbeat and you may dominant regularity

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Figure step three. Numerous pulse music created by new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt of a good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt from a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: 50 dB vibrant range, Hamming window (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s window length (female and male grunt), 0.08 s windows size (male deep grunt)

Shape 3. Numerous heart circulation audio developed by the brand new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you will involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt away from a beneficial territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt regarding a territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt away from a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: 50 dB dynamic range, Hamming windows (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (female and male grunt), 0.08 s window size (male strong grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.00step 1, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-heartbeat sounds

The selection of clearly assignable ticks led to the study out of 102 men presses out of 29 video out of 19 somebody and you may 66 girls ticks of 20 videos in the nests regarding fourteen guys. Your selection of demonstrably assignable plops resulted in the research away from 73 men plops of twenty eight video clips from 18 clips and you can 66 ladies plops out of 21 video at the nests of 14 people. Averaging men tunes for each and every personal men triggered a sample sized n = 18 having presses, and you may n = 17 having plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty eight.4 = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).